Male heirs are favored over female heirs by receiving a share that is twice as large. One of the reforms of socialism was to establish a form of rent control that kept rentals low. North of Cairo, the Nile Delta begins. Both have an absolute leader,nepotism and both use[d] religion to enforce laws. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Who can edit:
The main reason for wearing jewelry is because of its aesthetic function. The Egyptians were quite soberly dressed in white linen fabrics, and jewelry offered a possibility for contrast. The Egyptian preference was towards the use of bright colors, lustrous stones and precious metals. Gold was won in large quantities in the eastern desert of Egypt, but also came from Nubia, that was an Egyptian colony for centuries. On the other hand, silver was rare and was imported from Asia.
Therefore, it was silver that was often considered more precious than gold. The eastern desert was also an important source for colorful semi-precious stones such as carnelian, amethyst and jasper. In the Sinai were turquoise mines, the deep blue lapis lazuli had to come from far away Afghanistan. Glass and faience glaze over a core of stone or sand were favorites to replace rocks because they could be produced in many colors.
The Egyptians became very skilled when making jewelry from turquoise, metals like gold and silver, and small beads.
Both men and women adorned themselves with earrings, bracelets, rings, necklaces and neck collars that were brightly colored. Those who could not afford jewelry made from gold or other stones would make their jewelry from colored pottery beads.
One creation that was specific to ancient Egypt was the gorgerine , an assembly of metal discs worn on the chest, either over bare skin or over a shirt, and attached in the back. Embalming allowed the development of cosmetics and perfumes. The Egyptians used makeup most of all the ancient people.
Nails and hands were painted with henna. Black kohl , which was used to mark eyes, was obtained from galena. Eye shadow was made from crushed malachite. Red, which was applied to lips, came from ochre. These products were mixed with animal fat to make them compact and to preserve them. They wore galena or crushed malachite not just to enhance beauty, but because they believed it kept dust and dirt from getting into their eyes.
For this reason, both men and women wore it. Findings were published by American Chemical Society in the journal Analytic Chemistry suggest that the use of lead in makeup was intentional. Findings suggest that the lead in combination with salts produced naturally by the body produce nitric oxide which boosts the immune system. It can refer to either the whole country or the capital city. The name itself is an icon, spoken, written, or sung. The population of Egypt is relatively homogeneous.
The overwhelming majority over 90 percent are Arabic-speaking Sunni Muslims. About 6 percent are Christians, who are indistinguishable in other respects from the Muslims.
Most of the Christians belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, the historic church of Egypt, but minorities within the minority are Catholic or Protestant, or derive from the churches of the Levant Maronite, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic. There are a few small linguistic minorities, of which the largest is the Nubians, who speak two Nubian languages Kenuz and Mahas related to the Nilo-Saharan languages of the Sudan. They represent less than 1 percent of Egypt's population, and are concentrated around Aswan.
Other linguistic minorities include a few thousand Berber speakers in Siwa oasis, the easternmost outpost of Berber speech, and the small population of Beja Ababda and Bisharin in the eastern desert east of Aswan. All these groups are Muslim. There are also urban linguistic enclaves of Armenians, Greeks, Italians, and others. Another urban enclave was the Jews, now largely emigrated, who spoke either Arabic or various European languages. The urban minorities were much larger before the middle of the twentieth century.
Egypt has an area of , square miles 1,, square kilometers. The country is separated from its neighbors by either ocean or sparsely populated desert. To the north is the Mediterranean Sea, and to the east the Red Sea. Egypt is separated from Libya and North Africa by the western desert, from Palestine and Israel by the desert of the Sinai Peninsula, and from the centers of population in the Sudan by desert except along the narrow Nile River.
The highest point is Mount Catherine in the Sinai, at 8, feet 2, meters. Egypt is the gift of the Nile. Rainfall is not adequate to sustain agriculture or a settled population, and water instead comes from the Nile. After the dam, the Nile continues to flow north in a single channel paralleled by irrigation canals until it reaches Cairo, miles kilometers away. North of Cairo, the Nile Delta begins.
The Nile breaks into two main channels, the western Rosetta branch and the eastern Damietta branch, for the final miles kilometers before the water reaches the Mediterranean. The two main regions of Egypt Egypt are thus the Valley, or Sa'id, in the south, and the Delta in the north, separated by Cairo at the apex of the Delta.
The Nile receives about 85 percent of its water from the Ethiopian highlands. Before the construction of dams and barrages, floodwaters would spill out of the river's banks and, channeled by sluices and dikes, cover most of the agricultural land.
Egyptians then practiced a form of recession agriculture, planting winter crops in the mud left behind by the receding river. In the twentieth century, people have increased their control of the river. Control of the Nile has made it possible to cultivate year round. On average, there are two crops a year. About 96 percent of Egypt's population lives in the Nile Valley, which comprises about 4 percent of the area of the country; most of the economic and social activity occurs there.
The rest of the country is desert. This includes the scrub desert along the Mediterranean coast between the Nile Delta and Libya, and along the north coast of the Sinai Peninsula; the mountainous desert between the Nile Valley and the Red Sea; and the western desert west of the Nile Valley. Rainfall in these areas is rare to nonexistent. Only the Mediterranean coast has rain that is reliable enough to support marginal human activity, with some agriculture and animal husbandry.
There are smaller oases in the Sinai peninsula Firan , and even in the arid Eastern desert there are occasional springs, two of which provide water to Christian monasteries. It is an article of faith in contemporary Egypt that agriculture and settled life should spread beyond the confines of the Nile Valley. Major efforts have been made to "reclaim" land on the fringes of the Nile Valley, particularly east and west of the Delta. Over a million acres have been reclaimed since the middle of the twentieth century.
Recent discovery of fossil underground water in the extreme southwest corner of Egypt is leading to the development of irrigated agriculture in that area. At the end of , the total population of Egypt was 65,,, of whom about 1,, were considered to be living abroad temporarily, presumably mostly in the oil countries of the Arab Gulf but also including some in the West.
The population represented a The annual growth rate was calculated at 2. The lower growth rate was also reflected in the figure for those under 15 years of age, which was 35 percent of the overall population in as against Egypt's population is predicted to double between and According to the Egyptian Human Development Report , life expectancy at birth in Egypt was Infant mortality was 29 per 1, live births in The total fertility rate was 3.
Just over one-third of the population was below a poverty line based on consumption needs, calculated by the Egyptian government. Egypt is part of a broad band of countries, extending east to Korea, where there are "missing women.
People fill the street in a Cairo market. The level of education is increasing; those over the age of ten who were literate increased from Figures for graduates from different levels of education also grew—those holding a higher education degree increased from 4. The rural population was 57 percent in , compared to 56 percent in , but this includes some people living in settlements of 20, or more. A settlement is defined as urban according to its administrative function.
Egypt is part of the Arabic speech community of about million people, spread from Morocco to Oman. Arabic is a branch of the Semitic languages, which in turn belongs to the Afro-Asiatic language family together with Berber, Ancient Egyptian, Chadic, and Cushitic. Egypt became Arabic-speaking as a result of the Muslim conquest in the seventh century, though the full replacement of the earlier languages took several centuries.
In Egypt, as elsewhere in the Arab world, the Arabic language is characterized by diglossia. That is, there is a substantial difference between the written language, influenced by the Koran, and the spoken language.
There are some regional dialects in Egypt, notably the speech of Upper Egypt, but nothing that prevents understanding. Radio and television impose the Cairo-spoken language as the standard dialect of Egypt. Egyptian cultural influence is transmitted to the rest of the Arabic-speaking world in the Cairo dialect. English is the most common foreign language spoken in Egypt, followed by French.
The dominant symbols in the formal and semiformal sphere derive mainly from aspects of Egypt's history, especially the Pharaonic and Islamic periods. The three Giza pyramids sometimes together with the Great Sphinx represent the most important and obvious visual symbol of the Egyptian nation. It is the most widespread "postcard" image, and also the title of the major daily newspaper Al-Ahram with the three pyramids on the top of the front page.
The symbol of Egypt Air, the national airline, is Horus, a figure from ancient Egyptian religion represented as a falcon. Other symbols derive from the country's Islamic heritage. The nineteenth-century Mohammed Ali mosque built on top of a medieval citadel is visible from different parts of Cairo. Of more architectural significance are the Ibn Tulun and Sultan Hassan mosques in Cairo and the Qaitbey mausoleum and school in the northern cemetery.
One important symbol is derived from the country's geography: The Nile is invoked in different contexts, each representing a facet of the country's identity or prevalent themes of the culture.
It is associated with immortality, romance, or glory the construction of the high dam. In recent years, Nile cruises have become a favored tourist attraction, and "cleaning up the Nile" has become an environmental slogan. The flag is an abstract tricolor, with black standing for the past of oppression, red for sacrifice, and white for the future. A centerpiece of a falcon completes the design. Reflecting a sense of Arab unity, the flags of several other Arab countries have the same colors.
The current national anthem is the music of the song "Biladi" meaning "My Country" , a patriotic song that was popular during the uprising against the British occupation.
Emergence of the Nation. The land of Egypt has a distinctiveness within the region because of the development of major civilizations in the Nile Valley, sometimes phrased as seven thousand years of civilization. For several centuries Egypt was essentially a Christian country. The Muslim conquest in the seventh century C. In the sixteenth century, Egypt became part of the Ottoman Empire, ruled from Constantinople now Istanbul. On the eve of modernization, Napoleon and the French army conquered Egypt in , and remained through Many writers identify this period of three years as a major turning point in Egyptian cultural history, while others argue that the process began earlier and lasted longer.
In , in the aftermath of World War I, unrest aiming at Egyptian independence began. The main nationalist political party, the Wafd, was created that year. The agitation resulted in the recognition of Egypt's independence in and the establishment of a constitution in In and further treaties with the United Kingdom led to international recognition of Egypt's independence, and it joined the League of Nations in Egypt was the scene of major battles in World War II, and the country formally joined the war in its last year, A year later the monarchy was abolished and a republic established.
Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser emerged as the strongman of the new regime, and he became president in The new regime initiated many new social policies in Egypt. This was a genuine revolution that shared power and wealth more equally with all elements of the population and encouraged education for the masses. From a cultural point of view, the new regime released Egyptians from the feeling of oppression due to foreign rule, and allowed for the flowering of an unencumbered Egyptian identity, making it possible to be both modern and Egyptian.
This was also the period of maximum Egyptian involvement in warfare. The most devastating moment came with the defeat of A pile of pottery water jugs in Luxor Village along the Nile River. Irrigation is central to Egyptian agriculture and water is supplied by the government. Anwar el-Sadat became president after Nasser died in After the fourth war against Israel in , Sadat moved to make peace and to recover the Sinai. Under Sadat, too, many of the social reforms of the Nasser period were frozen or reversed.
Sadat was assassinated in and was succeeded by his vice president, Hosni Mubarak, who was elected for a fourth six-year term in September To date, all four of Egypt's presidents have been military men.
Unlike many third-world countries, Egypt does not have a clear moment when it became "independent. Arguably the process continues still, as Egypt deals with the meaning of an Egyptian identity and national independence in a globalizing world dominated economically and culturally by the United States. The main issue in ethnic identity arises not within the nation, but in terms of the nation being part of the wider Arab world. People debate whether being Egyptian or being Arab is more important.
The Arab world is tied together by shared language and culture, including shared Islamic values and practices, and by a sense of shared political problems—even when countries and people take different positions, they focus on the same problems. Arab unity is concretized in the Arab League, whose headquarters is in Cairo. Villages and cities are the two major settlement types. There has been, however, an increasing overlap in social and economic functions which, in turn, manifests itself in an increasing blurring of distinctions regarding architectural features of both city and village.
Villages consist of a core residential area surrounded by fields, and agricultural land. The core consists of contiguous one-story mud-brick houses built along narrow dirt roads. The houses incorporate a stable for the farm animals.
Owning a cow or a water buffalo represents a high investment, and since animal theft is feared, farmers are keen to keep their animals closely supervised. Rooftops are used for storage of dung cakes or straw, for ovens and mud granaries, or to keep chickens or rabbits. Since the mids the mud-brick houses have progressively been replaced by houses made of fired bricks, and growing population and prosperity have led to an expansion of the built-up surface of the village.
Red-brick houses are healthier, provide more amenities, and are more practical for modern life, though they are more expensive and less adapted to the climate. People can build them several stories high, which uses less of the scarce agricultural land. The money earned by migrants to oil-rich countries was mainly used to build new houses based on urban models.
Urban Egyptians generally decried this transformation of the village-scape as a blind emulation of urban lifestyles, and a change for the worse in the peasant character. This alarmed reaction from urban middle-class voices underscores an important aspect of rural-urban relations and perceptions where the "traditional village" is seen as the locus of authenticity and reservoir of tradition of the Egyptian nation.
Each village has at least one mosque. The mosque is communal and public for men. Many of the mosques are collectively built by the villagers themselves.
Another public space is the guest house, which is usually a large hall built and used collectively by an extended family. Here mourners receive condolences, and well-wishers extend congratulations for returning pilgrims. Again, guest houses represent mainly male space. Churches often include a space for social gatherings of a family or religious nature. Both women and men actively participate in the marketplace.
Weekly markets in big villages or district towns are both a place where commodities are traded and an important social arena where people exchange news and maintain social relationships. The urban character of the national culture is most apparent in the two major cities: One aspect of the political culture is a centralized bureaucracy. This feature manifests itself in a huge government building that dominates Cairo's main square.
This building houses various government departments that handle bureaucratic dealings with the public from all over the country.
Government buildings are more functional than beautiful. The architecture and layout of Cairo reflect the various epochs of its history. Very roughly, old Cairo is the medieval part, the heart of popular Cairo, and also where the Islamic and Coptic monuments are. The modern city center was built in the nineteenth century and was modeled after Paris.
Cairo is a continuously expanding city, and numerous squatter settlements are built on the outskirts. These squatter areas have poor water and sewage connections, and lack services such as schools, clinics, and police. Urban Egyptians usually live in rented apartments. Individual houses are rare. One of the reforms of socialism was to establish a form of rent control that kept rentals low. Newer apartments, however, are not under rent control, and rents are much higher.
Some people own apartments in a condominium-like arrangement. Occasionally an extended family may own an entire building and make the apartments available to its members. In the s and s living conditions in urban areas improved, albeit unequally, and such amenities as telephones, television, and air conditioning became more common.
The built-up areas of villages have very high population densities. People have largely accommodated to this forced proximity. In older parts of Cairo the streets are sinuous with many dead ends, while in newer parts, where the building pattern follows the lines of long narrow fields, the streets are themselves long and narrow.
Despite or because of the crowding, there is segregation by gender. For example, there are often two different queues for men and for women, and often separate cars for women on trains. Residential and urban areas, as well as agricultural zones, are spreading into the desert. There has been considerable increase in the use of the coastline, initially by foreign tourists and now increasingly as a vacation area for the Egyptian elite. The tradition of going to the Mediterranean towns in the summer is older, but now some people are exploring areas further afield, particularly along the Sinai coast and on the western shore of the Red Sea.
Food in Daily Life. Eating is an important social activity, and is central to marking special events and ceremonial occasions. The most important food item in daily life is the bread loaf. In rural areas, bread is usually baked by women in mud ovens at home.
In cities, bread is sold in bakeries. The indigenous cuisine relies heavily on legumes. The main national dish is foul. This is a dish of fava beans cooked slowly over low heat and seasoned with salt, lemon, cumin, and oil. It is usually eaten for breakfast. Another common dish is tamiyya or falafel which is made from crushed fava beans mixed with onions and leeks and fried in oil. Also popular is koshari , a mixture of rice, black lentils, and macaroni covered with tomato sauce and garnished with fried onions.
These dishes are prepared at home, but are also sold in stalls all over Cairo. The level of consumption of animal protein depends almost entirely on wealth and is itself a sign of wealth. Well-to-do households eat animal protein beef, lamb, poultry, or fish every day.
Muslims do not eat pork. Less-affluent families eat animal protein once a week or even once a month. Restaurants are widespread all over the country. They vary from stalls selling traditional street food to posh restaurants serving international cuisine.
One main distinction between traditional, usually rural, and urban middle-class eating habits concerns the seating and service of food.
In villages, people sit on a carpet, and food is placed on a very low round wooden table. Each person has a spoon, and everyone eats directly from the service dish.
In cities, people sit on chairs around Western-style dining tables. Each person has his or her own plate, spoon, fork, and knife.
In rural areas, the main meal is after dark; in the urban areas it is often in late afternoon after office workers return home. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Several Muslim feasts are marked by special meals. The 'Id al-Adha, which celebrates Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son who is then miraculously turned into a ram , requires those who can afford it to sacrifice a ram.
Part of the animal is distributed to the poor and part consumed by members of the household. The 'Id al-Fitr after the fast of Ramadan is celebrated by baking special cookies kahk which are later sprinkled with powdered sugar. These cookies are usually offered to guests who bring the greetings of the feast.
The Prophet's Birthday, which marks the birth of the prophet Muhammad, is celebrated by the consumption of halawet al-mulid, which is a variety of sweets cooked with different types of nuts. Children are given dolls girls or horses boys made entirely of sugar and decorated with colored paper.
On the eve of both Christmas day and Easter day, Orthodox Copts break their fast with a variety of dishes made of beef and poultry. One of the main food items that marks the feast are cookies similar to those prepared for the 'Id al-Fitr. Sham al-Nassim Easter Monday is mainly marked by a breakfast of salted fish, spring onion, lettuce, and colored eggs, which is consumed outdoors in gardens and open areas.
This festival is celebrated nationwide in practically all regions and by all social classes. It is the ancient Egyptian spring and harvest festival. Fasting is seen as a spiritual exercise by both Muslims and Christians. The Muslim fast entails abstaining from food and drink from sunrise to sundown, notably during the lunar month of Ramadan either twenty-nine or thirty days.
Some particularly devout Muslims also fast on other days in the Islamic calendar, such as the days celebrating the birth of the prophet Muhammad or his miraculous "Night Journey," the days representing the middle of the lunar month days thirteen, fourteen, and fifteen , or each Monday and Thursday. The result is that nearly half the days in the year can be considered fasting days by some. Virtually all Egyptian Muslims fast during Ramadan, while the voluntary fasts are followed by a smaller number.
The number of days that Egyptian Christians can theoretically fast is even larger. The number is variable, but it includes over days a year, mostly in the periods leading up to Christmas and Easter, plus the Wednesdays and Fridays of each week outside the fasting periods.
Christian fasting means avoiding meat, fish, eggs, milk, butter, and cheese. In the Christian tradition, one theme of fasting is the domination of the body and of emotions by the mind in order to reach a greater purity.
About 25 percent of the gross domestic product comes from industry and about 18 percent from agriculture. The remaining 57 percent includes all other activities, primarily services, including tourism, and the "informal sector" small-scale enterprises that often escape government supervision. There is also an extensive network of banks and a major construction industry.
A stock market on which about thirty stocks are traded emerged in the s. Egypt is a rich agricultural country, with some of the highest yields per unit of land in the world.
The main crops are cotton, sugarcane, wheat, maize, and fava beans with substantial areas given over to fruit orchards primarily citrus and to vegetables. Livestock cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats is also important and some land is used to grow fodder crops for these animals. There are two crops a year on average. Individual farmers try to be self-sufficient in certain crops such as wheat, but on the whole they market what they grow and procure their own food also from the market.
Elaborate market networks composed of small-scale traders purchase food crops and trade them into the urban areas, or sometimes between rural areas. On the whole, the marketing sector is characterized by a plethora of small units, although a few large-scale trading companies operate.
Being too small to bargain on price, farmers have to accept the trader's offer. The main inputs to agriculture are land, water, and labor.
Land is generally owned by private individuals in small holdings, with an average of about 2. From to tenancies were guaranteed those renting farmland could not be expelled except under rare conditions , but this guarantee was repealed in By that year, rented land covered about one-sixth of the farmland, and tenants tended to be poorer than farmers who were also owners. The culture of Modern Egypt has been change quite a lot from Ancient Egypt, being influenced by Saudi Arabian culture.
This caused women to be treated poorly because in Saudi Arabian women aren't really respected. The culture also uses religion poorly to discriminate against people, though they did so just a little bit in Ancient Egypt, it is more commonly used now. The culture had been changed a lot due to cultural diffusion.
Ancient Egypt didn't have cultural diffusion because it was isolated by deserts. The People Difference 4. Women Egypt wasn't always limiting women's rights like they are in Modern Egypt. Modern Egypt, due to cultural diffusion from Saudi Arabia creating different ideas about women and making them wear clothing so that they would be covered so that only their eyes are shown because they are considered to be a temptation to men only.
In Ancient Egypt women could wear whatever they wanted and they were respected far more than today. Women played a great role in society, and sometimes even rulers were women, as Cleopatra was, and she made Egypt a prosperous place. The people of Egypt both now and back then, were always raised to be peaceful, because it's their nature. The long repression in Modern Egypt had also caused them to become full of cowardice, and they never would fight back to the government, which is now full of corruption and they were already to busy making a living.
Egypt never use to be this way, because it use to be prosperous and full of smart intelligent people, but after having a corrupted government full of nepotism, and the creativity being stifle, Egypt has become worse than it's ever been. The "new" people of Modern Egypt have become determined and confident over time after wanting to make Egypt a better place. More presentations by Lucy Mercer The sucesses. Copy of Copy of Murasaki Shikibu. Copy of Murasaki Shikibu.
Creating downloadable prezi, be patient. Delete comment or cancel.
Feb 06, · Female Attire: Although 90% of Egyptians are Muslim, the dress code that coincides with the religion is not enforced in Egypt. Despite this fact, modesty is still very important to Egyptians so many of the women wear clothes that . In smaller towns, most people wear clothing that falls past their knees and elbows, and women often cover their hair. In large cities like Cairo, people dress more like their counterparts in the United States or Europe. Since Egypt is a very hot place and is mostly desert, people tend to wear light, cotton clothing. Egypt is a big country. The Egyptian citizens share a common history, national identity, ethnicity, race, culture, and language. Clothing and apparel are very diverse in Lower and Upper Egypt. In Lower Egypt, Egyptians tend to wear comfortable, much-less-revealing Western clothes. In Upper Egypt, Egyptians wear more traditional clothes.